NoWaste Project

Engine Waste Heat Recovery And Re-Use

Project Coordinator: Federica Bettoja

Centro Ricerche Fiat, CRF

Fiat Research Centre (CRF) is an industrial organisation having the mission to promote, develop and transfer innovation for providing competitiveness to its partners: Fiat Sectors, external SMEs, National Research Agencies. The CRF has relevant relationships with Fiat companies belonging to Fiat Group that operate in the domain of small stationary power units.

CRF fulfils its task by focusing on the following key functions: development of innovative products, implementation of innovative processes (manufacturing & organisation), development of new methodologies and training of human resources.

The core competence of CRF is centred on land transport means: vehicles, propulsion systems, components, and associated manufacturing processes and methodologies for product development. In developing and applying its core competencies, particular emphasis is given to the transfer of advanced technologies from automotive applications to other industrial businesses. This allows CRF to actively support the technological growth of SMEs (non-automotive centred) in fields such as business process re-engineering, advanced product/process methodologies, micro-mechanics and optics, IT methodologies, telematics, and others. The operational scheme is based on about 900 employees.

To properly cover a very wide technological spectrum, CRF developed a global network with national and international institutes, private and public research organisations, universities and companies, through the promotion of common research activities, associations, conferences and seminars, researchers mobility, etc. CRF has been participating in relevant projects of the National Research Council (CNR), of the Research National Programme (PNR), in EUREKA Programme, and in over 100 projects within the European Union RTD Programmes.

CRF is the project Coordinator and will lead the vehicle demonstrator realisation and validation. The vehicle demonstrator realisation include the system integration design and installation study as well as the NoWaste system design review to adapt it to the vehicle and finally the vehicle set up, instrumentation and experimental validation.

In addition CRF has in charge the development, prototyping and validation of the expander, this activity will be carried out with the support of the ULG as well as the design and prototyping of the heat exchangers for the on board unit.

Volvo Technology Corporation, VOLVO

Volvo is a world leading manufacturer of commercial vehicles. Within the Volvo Group, Volvo Powertrain is responsible for the development and manufacturing of diesel engines, transmissions and shafts. Volvo Bus is the world's second largest bus manufacturer. It offers one of the widest and most modern product ranges on the market, including products for city transport, intercity transport and tourist coach applications. Volvo Technology develops new technology and business solutions for the companies within the Volvo Group.

Volvo Technology (VTEC) is a Business Unit of the Volvo Group with head office in Gothenburg (Sweden) and offices in Lyon (France) and Greensboro/Allentown (United States). VTEC has around 500 employees and is an innovation company that on contract basis invents researches, develops and integrates new products and business concepts and technology for hard as well as soft products within the transport and vehicle industry. VTEC works primarily in the key technology areas: soft products, production, vehicle, propulsion & alternative drives, electronics and methods. VTEC’s primary customers are the Volvo Group Business Areas & Units and Volvo Cars but also some selected suppliers. In addition, VTEC participates in national and international projects in certain strategic areas, organized in common research programs, involving universities, research institutes and other companies. Besides R&D, Volvo Technology offers specialist services in key expert functions: intellectual property protection, standardization and information retrieval.

Volvo will mainly be responsible for the installation and evaluation of the waste heat recovery system on the engine test bench. This includes engine integration and packaging on the test bench, system verification and adaptation of control strategies. In a second step the waste heat recovery system engine test bench will be installed in a engine test cell in order to perform cycle tests and to evaluate the system performance on complete test cycles under realistic engine environment conditions.

Nevertheless Volvo is also responsible for numerical investigations and the pre-definition of the heat recovery architecture and pre-selection of possible working fluids as well as for the overall system design.

AVL List GmbH, AVL

AVL LIST GmbH is the world’s largest privately owned and independent company for the development of powertrain systems with internal combustion engines as well as instrumentation and test systems. AVL has about 1550 employees in Graz (over 500 graduated engineers) and a global network of 45 representations and affiliates resulting in total 3640 employees worldwide. AVL´s Powertrain Engineering division activities are focused on the research, design and development of various powertrains in the view of low fuel consumption, low emission, low noise and improved drivability.

The Advanced Simulation Technologies division develops and markets the simulation methods which are necessary for the powertrain development work. The Instrumentation and Test Systems division is an established manufacturer and provider of instruments and systems for powertrain and vehicle testing including combustion diagnostic sensors, optical systems as well as complete engine, powertrain and vehicle test beds. The business unit Hybrid & Battery Testing supplies advanced testing solutions for hybrid components and systems like electric motors and batteries.

AVL will be mainly responsible for the simulation of all the energy fluxes in the vehicle and subsequently in the numerical prediction of the NoWaste potential under real world driving condition. This requires also the development of a 1D model of the WHR device, including its own control strategy and the implementation of an hybrid vehicle concept.

The second main responsibility of AVL will be the assessment of technical feasibility and system costs. AVL will lead these tasks and manage the inputs from the partners.

FAURECIA Group , FAURECIA

Faurecia is the world’s sixth largest automotive equipment supplier, with four key business groups: Automotive Seating, Emissions Control Technologies, Interior Systems and Automotive Exteriors. The company, headquartered in France, operates in 32 countries at 200 sites and 33 R&D centers. Faurecia's R&D development capacities are carried by 3.500 engineers and technicians worldwide and, in particular, Faurecia's R&D network is highly present in Europe with 2.800 employees. Every year, the Faurecia group's R&D teams generate more than 200 innovation projects focusing on safety, comfort, interior space management, environmental performance, perceived quality and cost control. Faurecia registers more than 300 patents each year, putting the Group among the top companies in its sector.

Faurecia holds global leadership status in each of its core businesses. Its customer portfolio features practically every automaker around the world.

Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies (FECT) is the market leader in the emissions control sector. Faurecia expertise covers the complete value chain of the exhaust system, for which it designs and develops products from the exhaust manifold to the tail-pipe.

With approximately 13,000 employees in 23 countries (65 production sites and 10 R&D centres), FECT masters the full range of challenges facing automakers:

Environmental performance is a central concern. FECT has led the way by marketing both technological advances and products that overtime have become industry standards. Examples include particulate filters with a fuel-borne catalyst and coated particulate filters. One of the latest market introductions is the Exhaust Heat Recovery System (EHRS). This system allows the transformation of the exhaust wasted heat into “useful” purposes such as warming vehicle cabin and/or the engine at cold start.

FECT supplies the major European vehicle manufacturers and is involved very early in the vehicle design process. Furthermore, the company technological expertise is complemented and enhanced through the active participation to international, European and national R&D collaborative projects, networks and consortia. Examples include the participation to the US Department Of Energy funded project on Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery, the EU RTD programme on new materials and several projects in collaboration with German an French research public bodies (BMBF, ANR).

FAURECIA will focused its activity contribution on the development and realization of a new exhaust line suitable to comply with all the requirement on emission and engine performance and being compatible with the heat recuperation system. FAURECIA will realize the exhaust system for both prototype systems (bench and vehicle).

In addition FAURECIA will participate contribute to the project thanks to its experience in high temperature automotive components and exhaust and after-treatment systems.

DELLORTO

Dell’Orto group is active in mechanical field and produces feeding systems for automotive and motorcycle industry. The major core business is the production of EGR valves, throttle bodies, bypass valves, oil and fuel pumps and manifolds.

Dell’Orto head quarter is based in Cabiate (Italy) where are performed all the business, administration and management activities, from the business office, up to production (casting, machining and assembly) and those related to logistics, quality, and finally the research and development. Dell’Orto placed a research centre in Naples (Italy) in 2004 to develop advanced components and to carry out research projects in partnership with public research institutes like Istituto Motori of CNR and University. At this proposal Dell’Orto has already been present in some research programmes of this type. Among the other things this R&D advanced team is best practiced in intellectual property management.

In particular within Dell’Orto factory suitable laboratories are placed for carrying out validation tests on prototype and on product following test specifications built in Dell’Orto. For instance thermal shock, vibrations, actuations, chemical agent resistance, durability tests are possible. Dell’Orto has got a factory in India with the aim of creating a new production unit that allows the group to grow in a market in rapid evolution. In particular, the Indian company was founded for the production of a range of products intended for application on scooters.

Dell’Orto will be responsible for the development of a new exhaust bypass valve. This device would allow an amount of the exhaust gas to be directed to either exhaust muffler or heat exchanger of the heat recovery circuit.

In addition:

  • Dell’Orto will carry on an activity of analysis by means of numerical simulations based on the result of simulation activity done in WP1 by CRF and Volvo. In this way it will be possible to achieve the concept design of the valve which component to make the prototype thereof. This will be tested according to suitable test specifications built in Dell’Orto for these applications. Tests will regard, for instance, thermal shock, vibrations, actuations, chemical agent resistance, etc. Fluxing tests will be carried out to measure the flow rate of the device.
  • Activities will be carried out to set up the components to allow the integration in the plant system. This activity plan provides for a design review of the layout in order to integrate the component in the system design.
  • An overhaul of the project will be carried out to optimize the design and the performances. The aim of these activities will be the installation of component on the system layout. These prototypes will be tested according to suitable test specifications. The tests described in WP2 will be carried up within the activities of this WP.
  • Dell’Orto will embark on the feasibility study of the application on several types of vehicle like large truck, off road and agricultural vehicle. The costs of the components will be evaluated with regard to the possible market volumes and diffusion.
  • The suitable technical documentation about the development of the device will be prepared. The technical reports based on the result of numerical simulation, both fluidodynamic and thermodynamic, will be available. These results will be compared with experimental results to validate mathematical models.

University of Liège, ULG

The Thermodynamics Laboratory of the University of Liege comprises eight PhD students, three research engineers, three technicians and one assistant professor. The Laboratory has been carrying out research in the field of ORC systems for almost 6 years. These research activities mainly focus on the optimization of the design of ORC systems and their control strategies, as well as the selection of working fluids. The Laboratory has also gained a lot of experience in the fields of experimental and numerical research on positive displacement expanders.

Several expander prototypes and one ORC unit were developed in the Thermodynamics laboratory and are still currently being improved.

ULG will support the Consortium with its deep and acknowledged know how on waste heat recuperation system and on Rankine cycle. The main effort will be focused on supporting the development of the system model and on supporting the CRF in the design and selection of the expander technology and CRF and Volvo in the heat exchanger design and high pressure pump selection.